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Key Rulers of Bharatpur
Raja Badan Singh
Maharaja Surajmal
jawahar Singh
Jaswant Singh
Kishan Singh
Brijendra Singh

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Bharatpur Darbar Gokula - Chieftain of Sinsini
Gokula or Gokul Singh (died 1670 AD) was a Jat chieftain of village Sinsini in Bharatpur district in Rajasthan, India. Gokula provided leadership to the Jat peasants who had the audacity to challenge the Imperial power.
Gokula made the Jats to unsheath their swords and to wield these against the mighty Mughals. His father's name was Madu. Madu had four sons namely, Sindhuraj, Ola, Jhaman and Saman. The second son Ola later became famous as Gokula. More details about the birth of Gokula are not available.
Left Sinsini
In year 1650-51 Madu and his uncle Singha had fight with Mirza Raja Jaysingh in which Sindhuraj died and second son of Madu Ola became the successor. After this war Singha along with other Jat families in the fortress 'Girsa' moved to Mahavan beyond River Yamuna. Ola (Gokula) also moved with Singha to this place.
>Rise of Gokula
In early 1669 Aurangzeb appointed a strong follower of Islam Abdunnabi as Faujdar of Mathura to curb the Hindus of this area. Abdunnabi established a cantonment near Gokulsingh and conducted all his operations from there. Gokula organized the farmers not to give taxes to the Mughals. The Mughal soldiers started atrocities on the farmers. This was the starting point of struggle of farmers. Meanwhile Aurangzeb issued orders on 9th April,1669 to abolish the temples of Hindus. As a result large number of Hindu temples and ancient heritages of the period of Kushans were damaged. During month of May, 1669 the faujdar Abdunnabi seized village Sihora. Gokula was there and there was a fight in which Abdunnabi was killed. Gokula and his fellow farmers moved further, attacked and destroyed Sadabad cantonment. Sadullakhan had founded Sadabad during the period of Shahjahan. This incidence inspired the depressed Hindus to fight against atrocities of the Mughal rulers. The fights continued for five months.
The battle of Tilpat
The Jat peasants of Tilpat (Mathura) had the audacity to challenge the Imperial power under the leadership of Gokula. Jats were thus first to unsheath their swords and to wield these against the mighty Mughals. Emperor Aurangzeb had to march himself on November 28, 1669 from Delhi to curb the Jat menace. The Mughals under Hasan Alikhan and Brahmdev Sisodia attacked Gokula Jat. Gokula and his uncle Uday Singh with 20000 Jats, Ahirs and Gujars fought with superb courage and tenacity, the battle at Tilpat, but their grit and bravery had no answer to the Mughal artillery.
After three days of grim fight Tilpat fell. Losses on both sides were very heavy. 4000 Mughal and 3000 Jat soldiers were killed.
Gokula hacked to death
Gokula and Uday Singh were imprisoned. Jat women committed Jauhar. Gokula offered pardon if he accepted Islam. To tease the Emperor, Gokula demanded his daughter in return. Gokula and Uday Singh were hacked to death piece by piece at Agra Kotwali on 1st January, 1670.

Raja Ram Jat

Raja Ram (1688 – 1670) was a Jat leader and organizer of rebellion for freedom against Aurangzeb. He was chieftain of Sinsini in princely state of Bharatpur in India. Raja Ram was son of Bhajja Singh of Sinsini. Details about the early life of Raja Ram are not available. After the death of Gokula on 1st January 1670, Raja Ram kept alive the rebellion against the Mughals.
Raja Ram as organizer
Bhajja Singh along with his colleague Brajraj of Sinsini and their relatives prepared a small army of Sinsinwar and Kuntal gotra jats. Raja Ram organized Jat groups of different clans and united them under him. Sogaria was a powerful Janpad of Bharatpur and its chieftain was Ramki Chahar. Sogaria Jats already had a castle at Sogar (4 miles south-east of Bharatpur). He took Ramki Chahar with him. He fraternized with the Jats of Sidgiri region (Bayana, Rupbasaia). He also befriended the Jats of Ranthambhor against the Amber ruler Ram Singh. On the basis of the contemporary dispatches it can unmistakably be deduced that Raja Ram proved a great rallying point and a great number of the Jats were united under his leadership. This way he completed an important work of bringing together the scattered and unorganized Jat power.
Military training
He planned to construct kuchha mud forts all around in the Jat-belt. He trained the young farmers as skilled soldiers. He educated the rebels to strictly obey the instructions of their chief. Next, he began to organize his followers from the military point of view. He gave those military training and equipped them with firearms. He trained them in horse riding and weapons. He collected guns and other weapons. He organized them into regiments placed under different captains. Simultaneously, he impressed upon Jats, the necessity of remaining disciplined and obeying their captains. Thus he imparted to them the semblance of a regular army.
The defense strategy
Raja Ram gave similar attention to the strengthening of his defenses, for he must have seen how Tilpat was easily stormed for lack of proper defense and thus sealing the fate of the Jat rising under Gokula. Raja Ram, therefore, built his forts in dense deep Jungles and surrounded them with mud ramparts. The forest-infested environs and the mud walls rendered them stronger than was the chief stronghold of Gokula. These forts served as bases for operations and refuge as also places for dumping the booty. As is apparent from his tactics, Raja Ram stuck to the traditional mode of the Jat warfare, popularly known as “Dhar” (guerrilla) system. All through he avoided positional warfare with the Mughals and confined himself to sudden and intrepid attacks. This ensured him maximum benefit with minimum loss. These changes proved beneficial and gradually contributed to the success of the Jat rebellion.
Raids by Raja Ram
Having thus prepared himself, Raja Ram began to organize raids in the countryside of the Suba of Agra. The Jats hovered on the roads and plundered the caravans and the travelers. The Subadar of Agra, Safi Khan, was virtually besieged in the Agra fort. Along with the other rebels the Narukas, the Panwars, the Gujars and the Mevs - they practically closed the roads for normal traffic between Dholpur and Delhi, and Agra and Ajmer via Hindaun and Bayana. How deep was the consternation created by the insurgents would be clear by one instance that in an important place like Mathura no place except Jama Mosque was deemed safe. Raja Ram also tried to ransack Akbar’s mausoleum at Sikandara. But his attempt was foiled by the local faujdar, Mir Abul Fazl. He confronted the rebels at a place, 10 miles from Sikandara. The faujdar succeeded in repulsing them, though in the process he was seriously wounded and a number of his troops also perished. Raja Ram also suffered heavy casualties. Aurangzeb rewarded the faujdar with the title of Iltitifat Khan, increasing his Mansab by 200 sawars. Unsuccessful at Sikandara Raja Ram then fell upon Shikarpur and grabbed rich booty from the place. There from, he retired towards Ratanpur.
Worries of the Emperor Aurangzeb
Raja Ram’s mischief and disturbances went increasing. This worried the Emperor. On 3rd May 1686 he appointed Khan-i-Jahan Bahadur Zafarjang Kokaltash in order to punish the rebels. Despite his strenuous efforts, however, Khan-i-Jahan failed to capture any of the Jat strongholds or to punish the people. Therefore, he ordered his son, Muhammad Azam to proceed against the Jats. But he had only reached Burhanpur (July, 1687) when more pressing needs of Golconda compelled Aurangzeb to recall the Prince. Thereafter Bidar Bakht was sent (December, 1687) to assume supreme command in the Jat war, while Khan-i-Jahan was to act as his deputy.
Raja Ram killed Aghar Khan
Meanwhile Raja Ram showed greater audacity. He fell upon the Mughal commander Aghar Khan. The Khan with his retinue was enroute from Kabul to Bijapur when the Jats attacked him near Dholpur and fled away capturing many bullocks, carts, horses and women. The general gave them a hot chase but was killed in the ensuing skirmish along with his son-in-law and 80 other men. Two hundred Jats were killed in the action. The psychological gain from this audacious act was much more than the material one. Their success in killing and routing the reputed suppressor of the frontier Afghans must have whetted the audacity of the Jats. They carried their depredations further. Early in 1688, Raja Ram attacked Mahabat Khan. who on his way to Lahore was encamped near Sikandara. A fierce fight ensued in which Raja Ram was finally overpowered and driven back after losing 400 men. The casualties on the other side included 150 dead and 40 wounded.
Raja Ram attacked Sikandara
After a short while, Raja Ram reappeared at Sikandara and taking advantage of the delay in coming of Shaista Khan, the governor- designate of Agra, he attacked and plundered Akbar’s mausoleum. The Jat leader carried away the precious articles of gold and silver, carpets, lamps etc. and destroyed what he could not carry. According to Manucci the Jats dragged out the bones of Akbar, threw them angrily into fire and burnt them to avenge the death of Gokula. Muhammad Baqa (the Naib of Khan-i-Jahan) who was then at Agra, did nothing to frustrate the rebels. As a punishment, therefore, 500 and that of Khan-i-Jahan reduced his mansab by 1000 sawars. The Jats also ransacked the villages, set aside for the support of Taj Mahal. Some Jats ravaged the environs of Khurja, while others captured the local Mughal officers at Palwal. One noteworthy fact is that the local Mughal officials and soldiers in general, winked at the disobedience of the Jats and even secretly entered into collusion with them to share the booty grabbed by them. It is also to be noted that Muhammad Baqa, the deputy of Khan-i-Jahan at Agra, had remained inactive while Raja Ram robbed Akbar’s tomb.
This exasperated Aurangzeb and he reduced the deputy’s Mansab by 500 and that of Khan-i- Jahan by 1,000 sowars. Meanwhile, the daring and audacity of the Jats alarmed Aurangzeb and he ordered Raja Ram Singh (who was at Kabul) to chastise Raja Ram. But due to his sudden death the Raja could not resume his charge.
The battle of Bijal
Raja Ram, on the other hand, persisted with his refractory activities. His strength and resources now began to attract the attention of others. During these days the existing feud between the Chauhans and the Shekhawat Rajputs over disputed land in Bagtharia (22 miles north-east of Alwar) and some other parganas had erupted into an open war. The Chauhans appealed to Raja Ram for help, while the Shekhawats implored the help of Murtaza Khan, the Mughal faujdar of Mewat. Bilar Bakht, Rao Raja Anirudh Singh of Bundi and Maharao Kishor Singh Hada joined the faujdar and the Shekhawats. A severe battle was fought near Bijal. Opposite Raja Ram was the Hada Chief upon whom he inflicted a crushing defeat. Anirudh Singh himself could not stand before the Jat onset. He became nervous and fled along with his troops. When the battle was in its full fury the gallant Raja Ram led a fierce charge against the centre, consisting of the Mughals. Meanwhile, a Mughal musketeer, who had hidden himself in a tree, fired Raja Ram at his chest. He fell down from his horse and died immediately on Wednesday 4th July 1688.
His fall signaled the defeat of the Chauhans head was severed from the body and later on presented to Aurangzeb in the Deccan (5th September, 1688, 19th Zi-Qada, 1099 A.H.). Ramki Chahar was captured alive in the battle and was publicly executed at Agra.
Need to assess Raja Ram
Raja Ram as a leader of men and as a soldier, organizer and tactician, was certainly more capable than any other preceding Jat chief. His influence upon the contemporary history has not been properly assessed so far.

Chronology of Bharatpur rulers

  • Gokula, ? - 1670
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  • Raja Ram, 1670 - 1688
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  • Churaman, 1695 - 1721
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  • Badan Singh, 1722 - 1756
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  • Maharaja Suraj Mal, 1756 - 1767
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  • Maharaja Jawahar Singh, 1767 - 1768
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  • Maharaja Ratan Singh, 1768 - 1769
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  • Maharaja Kehri Singh, 1769 - 1771
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  • Maharaja Nawal Singh, 1771 - 1776
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  • Maharaja Ranjit Singh, 1776 - 1805
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  • Maharaja Randhir Singh, 1805 - 1823
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  • Maharaja Baldeo Singh, 1823 - 1825
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  • Maharaja Balwant Singh, 1825 - 1853
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  • Maharaja Jashwant Singh, 1853 - 1893
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  • Maharaja Ram Singh, 1893 - 1900 (Exiled)
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  • Maharani Girraj Kaur, regent 1900-1918
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  • Maharaja Kishan Singh, 1900 - 1928 (Exiled)
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  • Maharaja Brijendra Singh, 1929-1947 (Joined the Indian Union)
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Churaman (1695 – 1721) was Zamindar of Sinsini and the real founder of Jat state of Bharatpur in Rajasthan, India. He was son of Bhajja Singh and younger brother of Raja Ram. He was the first unanimously elected leader of Jats in 1695. He made Jats a political power in India. After the untimely death of Raja Ram in the war of Bijal between Shekhawats and Chauhans on 4th July 1688, old father of Raja Ram, Bhajja Singh became the leader of Jats. Aurangzeb played a trick. He appointed Raja Bishan Singh of Amber as Faujdar of Mathura. Kachwahas were bent upon to subjugate the Jats, who were fighting for freedom from Mughal rule. Bishan Singh gave a written promise to destroy the fort of Sinsini. Mughal and Rajput armies jointly attacked Sinsini and captured it after a struggle of five months, in the month of January 1690. In this war 200 Mughals and 700 Rajputs were killed against 1500 Jats.
Churaman expanded his base
In 1702 after the death of Bhajja Singh, Churaman came on front. Within a short period Churaman gathered 500 horse riders and thousands of soldiers. Nand Ram, the Zamindar of Hathras, also joined him along with 100 horse riders. Churaman recruited the famous brigand of Mendoo and Mursan in his army. He constructed a fort at place known as ‘Thoon’ at a distance of 150 km in west of Agra. Within a short span there were 80 villages under the Thoon state. There was an army of 14 – 15 thousands. Such a big army needed a lot of money. Churaman decided to gather booty from rich states of Kota and Bundi. He acquired Sinsini from the Mughals in 1704. In 1705 there was a war with Mughal subadar Mukhtar khan of Agra and with Rajabahadur in 1707 at Sinsini. In the second war at Sinsini 1000 Jats were lost but they got the victory.
The battle of Jajau and rise of Churaman
Aurangzeb died in 1707. Taking advantage of the weakness of Mughal rule Churaman planned to expand his state. His rise started from the battle of Jajau in 1707. After the war was over he looted both armies of Azam as well as Muazzam. Churaman showed wisdom and decided to be honest to the New Mughal ruler with a view to protect huge wealth of booty. He appeared before Bahadurshah on 15 September 1707 and presented gifts in his honour. In January 1709 Churaman entered into an agreement with Jay Singh, looking to the possibilities of victory of Rajputs in wars of Sambhar and Kaman and Bahadurshah’s intention to compromise with them. Under the garb of agreement Churaman intensified his campaign to abolish Rajput Zamindars and capturing back the Jat areas occupied by Kachwahas. He succeeded in getting back Sogar, Bhusawar, Kaman, Khohari, Kot, Khunthare, Ithera, Jadila and Chaugdara. In 1710 Churaman Joined Bahdurshah in his Sikh campaign. He took part in Sadhaura and Lohagarh wars and went up to Lahore with Bahadurshah. Churaman was excused unconditionally and returned his old Mansab. After the death of Bahadurshah his son Jahandarshah became the successor. In 1713 when there was a war between Jahandar and Farrukhsiyar, Churaman looted both after the war. This way he got a lot of wealth in booty. Similarly he captured elephants of the Royal army in Hasanpur war.
Rahjan to Rahdar
Farrukhsiyar appointed Raja Chhabilaram Nagar and later Khan-a-dauran as Subadar of Agra with orders to punish Churaman. Khan-a-dauran and Amir-ul-Umra, who had acquired Faujdari of Mathura wanted to maintain piece in their areas and prepared Churaman to appear before the Royal Darbar. On 27 September 1713 Churaman appeared before the Mughal ruler as a result of which his status was raised, he was awarded with the title of Rao and Rahdari of Royal Highways from Barapula to Sikandara. In 1715 Farrukhsiyar gave Ikram, Aghapur, Malah, Badhagaon, Bharatpur and Rupwas parganas in Jagir. Even after this Churaman continued to sack along with Rustam and Khemkaran Sogaria. With such allurement also Farrukhsiyar could not curb the activities of Churaman so he sent Raja Jaisingh of Jaipur for subjugation in 1716. Churaman won the war. Rajput and Mughal armies returned back. In 1719 when there was a war between Nikosiyar and Shamsherkhan, Churaman helped Shamsherkhan under the leadership of Govind Singh, the son of Nand Ram of Hathras. On 13 November 1720 he looted Abdullakhan and got 20 lakh gold coins in the booty. This way Churaman had become the real ruler from Delhi to Chambal on the land west of Yamuna. Churaman had organized his state with great labour, tact and struggle. He was not having the formal title of Raja but the real undisputed ruler of area under his occupancy. Badan Singh, the nephew of Churaman, was always with Churaman in every campaign. Badan Singh wanted the Jagir of Sinsini to support his increasing family. But Mohkam Singh, the ambitious son of Churaman was not in favour of giving the Jagir of Sinsini to Badan Singh. The conflict between the ambitions of Mohkam Singh and Badan Singh became the cause of death of Churaman, who consumed poison and died on 20 September 1721.
Founder of Jat state Bharatpur
Churaman had extra ordinary organizational capacities, wonderful political vision and cunningness of a great Raja. With these qualities he could convert the Jat rebellion started by Gokula into a form of a powerful state. Churaman was in real sense the founder of Jat state Bharatpur.

Raja Badan Singh

Badan Singh (1722 – 1756) was the formal founder of the princely state of Bharatpur. He was nephew of Churaman. After the death of Churaman on 22 September 1721 there were family disputes between Badan Singh and Mohkam, son of Churaman. Badan Singh aligned with Jai Singh II of Jaipur to avoid the anger of Mohkam Singh. In this family feud Jai Singh supported Badan Singh. Badan Singh became Brijraj On 18 November 1722 the Rajput Mughal combined army besieged the Thoon fort of Mohkam Singh, took it and got it ploughed by Asses. Thus the Jat state of Badan Singh rose from the asses of Thoon, Jatauli and other forts. After the fall of Thoon and Jatauli, Badan Singh became formally a samanta of Jaipur Darbar on 23 November 1722. Jai Singh in exchange honoured Badan Singh with the title of ‘Brijraj’ i.e. the king of Brij. He was permitted the use of ‘Nagara’, ‘Nishan’ and ‘Pachrang flag’ and gave the Kotwali of Agra. Besides, he was also given the Jagirs of Mathura, Vrindavan, Mahavan, Hisar, Chhata, Kosi and Hodal parganas for revenue of Rs. 50-60 lakh.
Expansion of the state
Badan Singh was not given the entire area in occupation of his uncle Churaman and his sons. He was only thakur of Deeg. Even then he maintained patience, political balance and loyalty to Jai Singh. He was clever enough to understand the circumstances of those times. Badan Singh planned to win over the confidence of his own Jat community and at the same time maintaining a balance with Rajputs and Mughals. With this vision he established his permanent residence and office near Deeg. After this he planned to make friendly relations with the influential zamindars and sardars of the Jat state. To implement his plan he married his most competent son Suraj Mal to Hansia, the beautiful daughter of most influential Chaudhary of Jatwara Ratiram. He recruited all the people in the army of Mohkam Singh in his own army. Badan Singh himself established marital relations with chiefs of various groups. He had 25 Queens. This helped him to increase his influence. He took in his side not only Jats and Rajput groups but also Brahmans. He awarded titles like Faujdar, Bakhshi and Sardar to many powerful people to take them into his side. He also allured the Gujars of Deeg and Nagar parganas by awarding them with the title of ‘Dhau’. This way he became an undisputed leader of mass over vast areas. Khemkaran Sogaria who was a close associate of Churaman was still against him. This problem was solved by his young son Suraj Mal. Suraj Mal eliminated Khemkaran and acquired Sogaria pargana from Khemkaran. Badan Singh also acquired 31 villages of Agra and the Jat dominated Kagaraul pargana on lease. With such a tact and vision Badan Singh could expand his state bigger than that of Churaman within a decade.
Role of Jai Singh II
In this success there was a great contribution of Jai Singh. Jai Singh was governor of Agra Suba. Badan Singh often visited Jaipur Darbar as per Royal customs on the occasion of Dashhara by presenting gifts. He also constructed a palace in Jaipur for his residence. That area is known as Badanpura even today. Badan Singh never visited the Mughal Darbar even after inviting many times. He called himself a thakur and never treated himself as Raja. It was with a view to respect the feelings of people and protects his own self-respect.
Inclusion of Mewat
Mev people inhabited areas surrounded by hills near the northern boundary of Bharatpur state. They were creating problems for people by looting them. Jai Singh also wanted to control them. The task of solving this problem was assigned to his son Suraj Mal and a close relative thakur Sultan Singh. They did it successfully. Surajmal was tactfully eliminating the Amils of Jaipur state and establishing his own Thanas. Badan Singh got the Jagir of Mewat for revenue of Rs. 18 lakh per annum.
The battle of Mandu 1729
Sawai Raja Jai Singh of Jaipur got the Subadari of Malwa in October 1729. He was ordered to move against the Marathas. The Kachwahas showed a great courage in the war against Marathas. Jats took part in this war against Marathas under the leadership of Suraj Mal. At the end of 1729 the Marathas were defeated in this war and Mandu came under Jai Singh.
The battle at Bhopal 1737
Sawai Raja Jai Singh sent the army against Peshwa Bajirao to help Nizam-ul-mulk under the leadership of his son Iswari Singh and Diwan Raja Ayamal. Badan Singh also sent Jat army in support of Jai Singh under the leadership of his second son Pratap Singh. There was a fierce battle on 24 December 1737 in which Nizam-ul-mulk was badly surrounded. At last on 6 January 1738 Peshwa Bajirao was forced to make a treaty with Jai Singh at village Doraha near Bhopal.
Gangwana war 27 May 1741
On 7 May 1741 when Jai Singh was busy in negotiations with Peshwa Balaji Bajirao in Dholpur, he received information about Bakht Singh Rathore's planning of attack on Amber. Jai Singh returned with an army of 50000 people. This army included Jats also. There was encounter by Bakht Singh with the army of Jai Singh at place called Gangwana near Ajmer. This battle was fought on 27 May 1741. Jat army took part in this battle under the leadership of Suraj Mal. Bakht Singh was defeated.
Retired from state affairs
Badan Singh had 20 sons. Out of them Suraj Mal and Pratap Singh were competent and popular. To avoid any family feud in future Badan Singh got constructed separately strong forts and palaces at Kumher for Suraj Mal and at Weir for Pratap Singh. It is believed that due to his health conditions Badan Singh handed over the state of Weir to Pratap Singh around 1738-40 and declared Suraj Mal as successor for the rest of state and handed over the administration to him. Due to untimely death of his son Pratap Singh on 2 November 1745 and severety of his eye problem he decided to retire from active royal affairs. In November 1745 Suraj Mal became the ruler of Jat state.
Last Period of Badan Singh
Badan Singh spent the last period of his life in Deeg and Sahar. He had inclination for art and architecture since beginning. Natwar Singh has mentioned that Badan Singh had extraordinary sense of beautification even though he was illiterate. According to him the grand lay out of palaces and gardens of Deeg was entirely that of Badan Singh. Badan Singh did the beautification of Deeg fort. The palaces constructed by him at Deeg are known as 'Purana Mahal'. He got constructed Parkotas around Kumher and Weir towns along with new construction of buildings in forts. Sahar was his place of choice so he got constructed beautiful buildings and developed gardens there. He also got constructed a temple at 'Dhir Samir' ghat of Vrindavan. Badan Singh himself was a poet and encouraged poets. He brought famous poet Somnath from Mathura and appointed as teacher of Suraj Mal. The craftsman of Agra had become jobless due to the meager financial conditions of Mughal ruler. Badan Singh brought these craftsman from Agra and gave them work. He also engaged large number of people in works like digging of ponds, making bricks, developing grass lawns etc. There was nobody without work in his state. Badan Singh died on 7 June 1756 at Deeg. His successor was Maharaja Suraj Mal
Assessment of Badan Singh
Badan Singh was the formal founder of the princely state of Bharatpur. Badan Singh expanded his state through vision and political tacts. He believed in peace rather than war and bloodshed. The people in his state were safe. He has great contributions for the architecture, art, poetry and craftmenship.

Maharaja Suraj Mal

Maharaja Suraj Mal (1707–1763) was ruler of Bharatpur in Rajasthan in India. He is known as "Plato" of Jat caste in India. His exact date of birth is not known. He was born in the month of February 1707. He was one of the eighteen living sons of Thakur Badan Singh. Maharaja Suraj Mal created Raja Brajendra Bahadur, married 14 wives, including, (a) Maharani Kishori, (b) Rani Lakshmi, (c) Rani Hansia, (d) Rani Ganga, (e) Rani Kavaria, (f) Rani Khet Kumari.
In the early 17th century, the peasant folk of Bharatpur were being terrorized and ill treated by the Mughals. At this point of time Churaman, a powerful Jat village headman rose against this tyranny but was defeated harshly by the Mughals. This did not remain for long, since the Jats once again came together under the leadership of Badan Singh, and controlled a vast expanse of territory. The Mughal emperor recognized him and the title of ‘Raja’ (king) was conferred upon him in 1724. Deeg was the first capital of the Bharatpur state with Badan Singh being proclaimed its ruler in 1722. He was responsible for conceiving and constructing the royal palace on the southern side of the garden, now called Purana Mahal or old palace. Because of its strategic location and proximity to Mathura and Agra, Deeg was vulnerable to repeated attacks by invaders. In 1730, crown prince Suraj Mal is reported to have erected the strong fortress with towering walls and a deepwater moat with high ramparts about 20 feet wide in the southern portion of the town. In the same year he built the fortress at Kumher. Raja Badan Singh’s heir, Raja Suraj Mal, was the most famous of the Bharatpur rulers, ruling at a time of constant upheaval around him.

Raja Surajmal used all his power and wealth to a good cause, and built numerous forts and palaces across his kingdom, one of them being the Lohagarh Fort (Iron fort), which was one of the strongest ever built in Indian history. The inaccessible Lohagarh fort could withstand repeated attacks of British forces led by Lord Lake in 1805 when they laid siege for over six weeks. Having lost over 3000 soldiers, the British forces had to retreat and strike a compromise with the Bharatpur ruler. Of the two gates in the fort, one in the north is known as Ashtdhaatu (eight metalled) gate while the one facing the south is called Chowburja (four-pillared) gate. Maharaja Suraj Mal conquered the site of Bharatpur from Khemkaran Sogaria, the son of Rustam, in the year 1733 and established the Bharatpur town in the year 1743.
He fortified the city by building a massive wall around the city. He started living in Bharatpur in year 1753. Maharaja Suraj Mal attacked Delhi on May 9, 1753. He defeated Nawab of Delhi Ghazi-ud-din (second) on May 10, 1753 and captured Delhi. The Nawab of Delhi, in revenge of the defeat, instigated Marathas to attack Suraj Mal. The Marathas laid siege over the Kumbher fort on January 1, 1754. Suraj Mal fought with bravery and gave strong resistance. The Marathas could not conquer the Kumbher fort. The Marathas were defeated by Afghan armies at the Third Battle of Panipat and a hundred thousand Maratha survivors reached Suraj Mal’s territory while returning south, sans arms, sans clothes and sans food. Maharaja Suraj Mal and Maharani Kishori received them with tender warmth and hospitality, giving free rations to every Maratha solder or camp follower. The wounded were taken care of till they were fit to travel. Thus, Maharaja Suraj Mal spent no less than three million rupees on their sick and wounded guests.
Maharaja Suraj Mal died on 25 December 1763 in war with Najib-ud-dola. At the time of his death Maraja Suraj Mal’s Empire included Agra, Dholpur, Mainpuri, Hathras, Aligarh, Etah, Meerut, Rohtak, Faruqnagar, Mewat, Rewari, Gurgaon and Mathura. He was succeeded to the throne by his son, Jawahar Singh.

Jawahar Singh

Maharaja Jawahar Singh (1767-1768) was ruler of Bharatpur state . He succeeded to the throne when his father Maharaja Suraj Mal died in 1763. He was extravagant, willful, ambitious and energetic. He could never get on well with his father Maharaja Suraj Mal, who always felt that he would be responsible for bringing about the end of the Jat Kingdom. That is why he wanted his younger son Nahar Singh to be his successor. This created a big problem for all his nobles. At the time of Raja Suraj Mal's death in 1767 Jawahar Singh was in Farukhnagar. Jawahar Singh ascended the throne Maharaja Suraj Mal's nobles placed Nahar Singh on the throne. On hearing this news Jawahar Singh lost his temper and sent a letter to Bharatpur expressing how painful it was that while the dead body of his father Suraj Mal was restless for his head, his sons were quarrelling among themselves for the throne. Jawahar Singh announced that he would soon return to Bharatpur and would contend for the throne only after taking revenge for his father’s head. By the time he reached Bharatpur, the news had spread that Jawahar Singh took shelter with the Raja of Karauli. Bal Ram brother-in-law of Maharaja Suraj Mal the commander of Bharatpur forces closed the gates of Bharatpur fort and prepared for war against Jawahar Singh. Ultimately, however, he accepted Jawahar Singh's claim to the throne. Maharaja Sawai Jawahar Singh ascended the throne of Bharatpur with the title of Bharat Indra.
Jawahar Singh’s revenge
Maharaja Jawahar Singh punished all those courtiers who had opposed his succession to the throne. Nahar Singh fought a war against him with the help of Karauli and the Marathas, but was defeated. Jawahar Singh helped the Raja of Dholpur to be independent of the Marathas. He also made alliances with the East India Company against the Maratha Leader, Raghunath Rao. He had his maternal uncle Balram murdered. Raja Suraj Mal had been maintaining superficially friendly relations with Raja Madho Singh of Jaipur, in spite of his having a born foe of the Bharatpur 'Raj'. Jawahar Singh did not approve of it. After the death of Nahar Singh, Jawahar Singh called his wife and his children back from Jaipur to Bharatpur, but Madho Singh refused to send them. In reply, Jawahar Singh gave shelter to Pratap Singh, a rebel Sardar of Jaipur, and demanded Pargana Kama of Jaipur, which was adjacent to Bharatpur. He further annoyed Madho Singh by adopting the title of Sawai, which was the title adopted by Madho Singh's father, Raja Jai Singh only
Jawahar Singh’s march against Delhi
In October 1764, Jawahar Singh had marched against Delhi with 100 guns 60,000 soldiers of his own, 25,000 Maratha soldiers of Holkar and 15,000 Sikh soldiers. After a siege of several months Najibuddin appealed for peace. But Jawahar Singh was determined to take revenge for his father, by severing the head of Najibuddaulah. After several days, some Rohilla leaders came to the camp of Jawahar Singh with Zubita Khan who sought the intervention of Maharaja Holkar. Holkar tried to persuade Jawahar Singh to make peace on the condition that the hand of a Mughal Princess would be given to him in marriage and Najibuddaulah would pay the whole expenditure for war. Jawahar Singh accepted this offer and returned to, Bharatpur. In February 1765 a treaty was signed on payment of Rs. 60 Lakhs as war indemnity and the hand of & Mughal Princess, who was later married to a Frenchman, Captain Samru. In this treaty Holkar had accepted a bribe from Najibuddaulah and acted treacherously towards Jawahar Singh. When Jawahar Singh knew these things relations between him and Holkar became strained.
War with Madho Singh
Jawahar Singh made the big mistake of leaving Pratap Singh the rebel of Jaipur, for the defence of Bharatpur. He considered Partap Singh to be a reliable man, but in this he was deceived. When Pratap Singh came to know about the Pushkar bath, He left Bharatpur undefended, and joined the camp of Madho Singh. Pratap Singh instigated Madho Singh against Jawahar Singh. All the Rajput rulers assembled at Pushkar and held a conference in which no Jat rulers were invited. Raja Madho Singh said in this conference that the Jat ruler had injured the vanity of all the Rajputs. It was here that a witty Marwari, Raja Vijay Singh pointed out that after all the Jats were also Hindus and if they donated liberally on this auspicious occasion according to their financial position, it must not be taken as humiliation by Rajputs. Madho Singh, however, rejected this advice and appealed for war. The decision of this conference soon reached Jawahar Singh. He was expecting it. Madho Singh laid on ambush in a valley to intercept Jawahar Singh on his return. Jawahar Singh had anticipated this and took the alternative route via Turna Wati, which was a bottleneck Surrounded by hills. The column of troops with cavalry and artillery was marching under the leadership of Captain Samru. The palanquins of the Ranis were escorted by Jawahar Singh in the rear of the column. All of a sudden Rajputs attacked them from three sides. It was a fierce battle, in which the Rajputs suffered great losses. In the battle, it was found that only 11 tender aged members were left in the family of Raja Madho Singh. The rest lost their lives. It is said that 25,000 casualties occurred in this battle. Jawahar Singh reached Bharatpur. Both of Jats and Rajputs claimed themselves victorious in this battle, but apparently the loss did not have not much of a repercussion on the strength of Jats, whereas Madho Singh had to suffer such a severe blow that his power never recovered. Some unknown person killed later Jawahar Singh in 1768 while he was out on hunting. His successor was Maharaja Ratan Singh.
The Pushkar bath by Maharani Kishori
Maharani Kishori, wife of Maharaja Suraj Mal, who had adopted Jawahar Singh, was adept at political intrigues. She was pained to see that Jawahar Singh was not adopting a favourable policy towards the members of the family and the nobles. She knew that only keeping him engaged in warfare could control him. She also knew that the Rajputs could never tolerate this abrupt rise of Jat rule and would always resist the latter's efforts to gain power. The solution for both the problems lay in war. Maharani Kishori epressed her desire to her proud son that she wanted to go for a sacred bath at Pushkar. Jawahar Singh pointed out that Pushkar was situated in the territory of his eternal and deadly foe, Raja Madho Singh, who would not tolerate her arrival at Pushkar with a large retinue, and advised her that if at all she were keen to go for Pushkar bath, she would go with only a few followers and Rupa Ram the Purohit. The Rani retorted by saying that she was the mother of Jawahar Singh, and the Rani of Maharaja Suraj Mal and taking a bath like Marwari women would hurt her pride, and that she would like to take her bath along with the Rajput Ranis there. She would also like to give away alms surpassing the Rajput Ranis. She said, she did not understand why the Jats should be afraid of the Rajputs any longer. Jawahar Singh knew well that this would lead to warfare and bloodshed.
Jawahar Singh marched to Pushkar with 60,000 Cavalry, 1 lakh Infantry and 200 guns. With fluttering banners and beating drums they entered Jaipur territory and set up an impressive camp in the Sandy plains of Pushkar. Maharani Kishori was weighed in gold, which was given in charity. The other Ranis who had come on this occasion felt humiliated because they were not in a position to match the charity of Maharani Kishori. The Rajput vanity was hurt.

Maharaja Ratan Singh

Maharaja Ratan Singh was the ruler of princely state of Bharatpur (1768-1769). He ascended to throne on the death of Maharaja Jawahar Singh. Jawahar Singh had no son, hence he was succeeded by his incapable, licentious and luxuriant brother Ratan Singh. Ratan Singh was ultimately killed by a juggler at Mathura. His son Maharaja Kehri Singh succeeded him in 1769

Maharaja Kehri Singh

Maharaja Kehri Singh was the ruler of princely state of Bharatpur (1769-1771). He ascended to throne on the death of Maharaja Ratan Singh. Maharaja Nawal Singh succeeded him in 1771.

Maharaja Nawal Singh

Maharaja Nawal Singh was the ruler of princely state Bharatpur (1771 - 1776). He succeeded Maharaja Kehri Singh in 1771. After his death in 1776 his successor was Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the ruler of princely state Bharatpur (1776 - 1805) and successor of Maharaja Nawal Singh. Jawahar Singh had no son, hence he was succeeded by his incapable, licentious and luxuriant brother Maharaja Ratan Singh. Ratan Singh was ultimately killed by a juggler at Mathura. His son Kehri Singh died of small pox in childhood. Ranjit Singh ascended to throne in 1776. In the absence of any capable and powerful ruler, the inevitable result was a civil war and maladministration within the state. Conflict arose between two brothers of Maharaja Jawahar Singh, i.e. Maharaja Nawal Singh and Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Nawal Singh's health was indifferent, and he finally died thereby clearing the way for Ranjit Singh to ascend the throne of Bharatpur. These internal dissensions caused the economic condition of the state to deteriotate. In this period the seven years War between France and England was taking place on. France was flourishing under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte who was thinking of colonising India. The British were also trying to do the same through the East India Company.

The French Governor of Pondicherry approached Captains Samru and Madek to resign their services with the Jats who were considered friends of British. According to the instructions from their Government, both the reliable and trustworthy commanders of Jats Force had to leave them, and take up their new assignment at Delhi under the Mughal Emperor. Taking advantage of their intimate knowledge of the weakness of Bharatpur State. Mirza Nazaf attacked Bharatpur and defeated Ranjit Singh at Hathras. Ranjit Singh was exiled from the State and Maharani Kishori was left with the territory of Kumher having an yearly income of Rs. 7 Lakhs. But after the death of Mirza, the Mughals in defiance of his decision attempted to capture Kumbher also. Ranjit Singh during his period of exile consolidated his strength, rallied against the Mughals, gave them a crushing defeat and returned to Bharatpur victoriously. He not only regained his lost territory but also annexed some Mughal territory. He was supported by Marathas on the condition of Chauth (1/4 of war benefits). He tended his diplomatic relations with the East India Company and also gained some more territory resulting in further amelioration of his position. After acquiring sufficient power, he discontinued the grant of Chauth to Marathas which resulted in strained relations between Marathas and Jats.

In 1802, in the war between the British and the Marathas, the latter were badly vanquished by the foreign forces under command of Lord Lake. The troops of Marathas under Yashwant Rao Holkar fled away from the battle field and were chased by the British forces. They tried to seek shelter with Patiala, Jind and other states, but none of these rulers had the courage to keep them in realisation of the consequences when the British forces were advancing with unabated vigour. Reluctantly the Marathas appealed to Bharatpur. The Jats greeted them with open arms. The Jats would not give up their traditional hospitality and courtesy even at the cost of their lives. Lord Lake advanced on Bharatpur inspite of the combined forces of Jats and Marathas. Due to heavy pressure from the enemy, the Jats had to evacuate Deeg for better defensive positions. Maharaja Ranjit Singh remained the friend of British rulers through out his life. He fully followed the treaty with British. He died in December 1805. He had four sons out of which Maharaja Randhir Singh was the eldest who succeeded him.

Maharaja Randhir Singh

Maharaja Randhir Singh (1805 - 1823) was the ruler of princely state Bharatpur and successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Maharaja Randhir Singh ascended the throne after death of his father Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1805. Maharaja Randhir Singh tried to improve the state administration in various ways. He abolished the huge army that was creating disturbances and rebels due to delay in payment of salaries in order to maintain piece and reduce taxes in the state. He helped the British rule to reduce the terror of Pindaris. He ruled Bharatpur princely state for 18 years with harmony and vision.
He constructed Chhatri and Palace in memory of his father Maharaja Ranjit Singh. He had no son. He died in 1823. His successor was Maharaja Baldeo Singh.

Maharaja Baldeo Singh

Maharaja Baldeo Singh was the ruler of princely state Bharatpur (1823 - 1825) and successor of Maharaja Randhir Singh after his death in 1823. Maharaja Randhir Singh had no son. As per rule his brother Maharaja Baldeo Singh ascended the throne after death of his brother Maharaja Randhir Singh in 1823.
Family disputes
Maharani Laxmi, the Rani of Maharaja Randhir Singh, was not happy with Baldeo Singh, so she went to Brindavan and took with her the keys of fort as well. She died there soon and this settled the dispute. Mean while his younger brother’s sons Durjansal and Madho Singh rebelled against Baldeo Sngh. Due to these family disputes Baldeo Singh called Sir David Acturloni and made his son Balwant Singh as his successor in his presence. After this Baldeo Singh died on 26 February 1825.
British won Bharatpur
Soon there developed the family dispute between Durjansal and Madho Singh. Madho Singh went to Deeg and started organizing army. Charles Metcalf took advantage of this situation and declared attack on the Bharatpur fort. The British forces under the leadership of Lord Combermere reached Bharatpur on 10 December 1825. War started on 23 December 1825. The British forces won the impregnable fort of Bharatpur. After Bharatpur victory, The British ruled over entire Rajputana. Maharaja Baldeo Singh died on 26 February 1825. The successor of Baldeo Singh was his son Maharaja Balwant Singh.

Maharaja Balwant Singh

Maharaja Balwant Singh (1820 - 1853) was the ruler of princely state Bharatpur (1825 - 1853) and successor of Maharaja Baldeo Singh. He was born at Jawahar Bagh, Bharatpur on 5th February 1820, was the only son of Maharaja Baldeo Singh by his wife Maharani Miraj Kaur. He succeeded on the death of his father on 26th February 1825. He was seized and imprisoned in the Fort at Bharatpur 28th March 1825, by his cousin Rao Durjan Sal. The British armies laid siege to the Fort and freed the infant Maharaja on 19th January 1826. He was installed on the gadi on 5th February 1826. He was married to the princess of Pichhore in 1827. He arrested Bholanath Diwan and his colleagues when became young. He reigned under the Regency of his mother until her deposition and then under a Council of Superintendence until he came of age and was invested with full ruling powers in 1835.
In 1842, he got the state of Ballabhgarh transferred to the Jat ruler with the help of British government. He got his only son Maharaja Jashwant Singh in 1850. The people of Bharatpur were happy during his reign. He always tried for the welfare of the people of his state. He died at Bharatpur on 21st March 1853, having had issue, an only son. His successor was Maharaja Jashwant Singh.

Maharaja Jashwant Singh

The young Maharaja of Bharatpur Jaswunt Singh, aged about eleven, in his durbar or court in 1862. The young prince sits in the centre of his guddee or royal seat, which is of velvet richly embroidered with gold. Behind him are four servants, two of whom hold merchauls of peacocks' feathers, and the chouree of yak's tail hair.In two rows on either side of the Rajah, the nobles and sirdars of the state are seated, who may be relatives, or officers in various parts of the state services. Maharaja Jashwamt Singh (born 1851- died 1893) was the ruler of princely state Bharatpur 1853 - 1893 in Rajasthan, India. His successor was Maharaja Ram Singh. Maharaja Jaswant Singh GCSI (1.1.1877) was born at Deeg on 1 March 1851. He was the only son of Maharaja Balwant Singh. He got education privately. He had the knowledge of Hindi, English and Persian languages. Contents[hide]· 1 Ascended the throne · 2 A popular ruler · 3 See also · 4 References · 5 External links
Ascended the throne
He succeeded on the death of his father on 21 March 1853. Ascended the gadi on 8 July 1853, reigning under Council of Regency until he came of age. Assumed limited ruling powers on 10 June 1869 and was invested with full ruling powers on 28th March 1872. He married at Patiala on December 1859 with Maharani Bishan Kaur, the third daughter of Narendra Singh of Maharaja Patiala. His second marriage was at Deeg in 1870 with Darya Kaur, the sister of Chaudhari Birbal Singh of Jagina in Bharatpur. He received a sanad of adoption on 11 March 1862 like the other Maharajas of India. Attended the Imperial Durbar at Delhi in January 1877. The Maharaja Phaltan Regiment of Infantry raised in his name in 1857. Bharatpur supported the British rule in 1857 war of independence.
A popular ruler
He Received the Prince of Wales's gold medal (1876) and the KIH gold medal (1877). He did manage the affairs of state with success in the interest of public. The people of Bharatpur still remember his love and justice to the people. He removed levy on all items except intoxicating items. He got surveyed the land titled maphi by the patwaris in 1886. He donated Rs 50000 for the establishment of Mayo College Ajmer. He also helped the Maharaja Shyaudan Singh of Alwar to get loan of Rs 3 lakhs from the Seths of Mathura. He died at the Deeg Palace on 12 December 1893, having had issue, four sons and three daughters. His successor was Maharaja Ram Singh The young Maharaja of Bharatpur Jaswunt Singh, aged about eleven, in his durbar or court in 1862. The young prince sits in the centre of his guddee or royal seat, which is of velvet richly embroidered with gold. Behind him are four servants, two of whom hold merchauls of peacocks' feathers, and the chouree of yak's tail hair.In two rows on either side of the Rajah, the nobles and sirdars of the state are seated, who may be relatives, or officers in various parts of the state services.

Maharaja Ram Singh

Maharaja Ram Singh (born, 1873 – death, 1929) was the ruler of princely state Bharatpur (1893 - 1900) and successor of Maharaja Jashwant Singh.
He was born at Lohagarh, Bharatpur on 21st September 1873, as second son of Maharaja Jashwant Singh by his second wife, Maharani Darya Kaur. He succeeded on the death of his father on 12th December 1893. He ascended the gadi on 25th December 1893. Some of his advisors were not competent and well wishers of the people. Historians believe that he had no self-control due to which his health deteriorated. His ruling powers were suspended on 10th August 1900 after the murder of one of his personal servants, the barber. After an enquiry he was deposed and exiled to Agra on 27th August 1900. He was married to first at Lohagarh, Bharatpur on 17th April 1884 to Maharani Kishan Kaur, a daughter of a Zamindar of Tepera, in the Aligarh district. His second marriage was with Maharani Girraj Kaur on 1 January 1918.
He had two sons and one daughter: Sons were 1. Maharaja Kishan Singh 2. Rao Raja Giriraj Singh. Daughter: Gokul Kaur. He died in exile at Agra in September 1929. His successor was Maharani Girraj Kaur.

Maharani Girraj Kaur

Maharani Girraj Kaur was the ruler of princely state Bharatpur (1900 - 1918) and successor of Maharaja Ram Singh, whose ruling powers were suspended on 10th August 1900 after the murder of one of his personal servants. After an enquiry he was deposed and exiled to Agra, 27th August 1900. She was a daughter of a Zamindar of Deoli, in Bharatpur state and Second wife of Maharaja Ram Singh.
She was Regent for her son from 27th August 1900 to 28th November 1918 till he became of age. She died at Lohagarh, Bharatpur on 24th August 1922. Her successor was her son Maharaja Kishan Singh.

Maharaja Kishan Singh

Maharaja Kishan Singh (born, 1899 – death, 1929) was the ruler of princely state Bharatpur (1918 - 1929) and successor of Maharani Girraj Kaur.
Maharaja Kishan Singh, KCSI (1.1.1926) was born at Moti Mahal, Bharatpur on 4th October 1899. He was eldest son of Maharaja Ram Singh by his second wife, Maharani Girraj Kaur. He got education at Mayo College, Ajmer and Wellington. He succeeded on the deposition of his father on 27th August 1900. Installed on the gadi at Bharatpur on 30th August 1900. He reigned under the regency of his mother until he came of age and was invested with full ruling powers on 28th November 1918. Attended the funeral of the King-Emperor Edward VII in 1910. He received Delhi Durbar gold medal in 1911 and GO of the Order of the Crown of Belgian on 12 February 1926. He married on 3rd March 1913 with Maharani Rajendra Kaur, youngest daughter of Raja Balbir Singh of Brar clan Raja of Faridkot. He reorganized army in 1919.
He made Hindi as state language. He toured to Sri Lanka and established ‘Brij-mandal’ in Shimla. He also made primary education compulsory. He promulgated social reforms act. He introduced the system of participation of public in state affairs through credit banks, issuing society and village panchayat acts. He promoted the establishment of Ayurvedic hospitals. He started organizing exhibition in Bharatpur every year to promote trade and arts. He took steps towards the protection of cows. The steps taken by him in 1924 famine in the interest of public are always remembered. He was proud to be a Jat and presided over the 1825 Jat Mahasabha adhiveshan organized at Pushkar. He died at Agra on 27th March 1929, having had issue, four sons and three daughters. His eldest son Maharaja Brijendra Singh succeeded him.

Maharaja Brijendra Singh

Maharaja Brijendra Singh (born 1918 – death 1995) was the ruler of princely state Bharatpur (1929–1947) and successor of Maharaja Kishan Singh.
Maharaja Brijendra Singh was born at Savar Mahal, Bharatpur on 1st February 1918. He was the eldest son of Maharaja Kishan Singh by his wife Maharani Rajendra Kaur. He got education at Bryanston and Wellington. Maharaja Brijendra Singh succeeded on the death of his father on 27 March 1929. Ascended the gadi on 14 April 1929 and reigned under Council of Regency until he came of age. Invested with limited ruling powers, 22nd October 1939. Invested with full ruling powers. Signed the instrument of accession to the Dominion of India, August 1947. Merged his state into the Matsya Union on 18 March 1948, which was absorbed into state of Rajasthan on 15 May 1949. He first married at the Amba Vilas Palace, Mysore 18 June 1941 with Maharani Chamunda Ammani Avaru the third daughter of Maharajkumar Kanthirava Narasimharaja Wadiyar. Then he did second marriage at Bharatpur on June 1961 (div. 1972), with Maharani Videh Kaur.
He was Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha) 1962–1971. He was deprived of his royal rank, titles and honours by the Government of India on 28 December 1971. He died on 8 July 1995, having had issue, one son and five daughters.

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Reference · Brief history and detailed genealogy of the ruling chiefs of Bharatpur · Genealogy of the ruling chiefs of Bharatpur · Imperial Gazeteer of India Vol 8, P-73 Bharatpur State